Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico. Recent research modified this view somewhat; scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico as the center of domestication. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica, cooked, ground or processed throughnixtamalization. Beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. Nevertheless, recent data indicates that the spread of maize took place even earlier.

According to Piperno,"A large corpus of data indicates that it [maize] was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP [5600 BC] and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP [5000-4000 BC]." After European contact with the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries.

Production in India

India is one of the largest producer of Maize in the world, with 14.06 lakh MT during the year 2011. The country ranks sixth in Maize production with 3.39 percent share in total work production.

Maize grain contains about 10% protein, 4% oil, 70% carbohydrate, 2.3% crude fibre, 10.4% albuminoides and 1.4% ash. Maize grain also has sufficient quantities of vitamin A, nicotinic acid, riboflavin and vitamin E. Maize cropfurnishes huge quantities of green fodder for the cattle. Maize primarily knows as corn in India, Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain.

India Facts and Figures

India has increased its share in the cereal products in the international market. The country has exported 28,25,610.60 MT of given cereals to the world for the worth of Rs.4,037.50 Crores during the year 2014-15.

For all aspects of the product, unless described otherwise here below, the standard of Codex Alimentarius last edition applies, including packaging.

- Product must be fit for human consumption and be of sound, fair and marketable quality.

- The Cartagena Protocol (Biosafety Protocol, additional to the Convention of Biodiversity) requires that exporters/producers indicate whether food items may contain GMOs (Genetically modified organisms) or not.

The applicable control methods are:

- ISO 6540 Maize - Determination of moisture content (for milled grains and whole grains)

- ICC 105 Determination of crude protein in cereals and cereal products for food and for feed.

- ISO 2171 Cereals and milled cereals products – Determination of total ash.

- ISO 7305, AOAC 14022 Milled cereal products – Determination of fat acidity

- ICC 113, AOAC 7070 Determination of crude fibre value.

- ISO 5223. Test sieves for cereals, with 4.5mm sieve

Product must be:

- In accordance with the present specifications

- Free from abnormal flavour/odour and living insects/pests.

- From fresh production for milled product (maximum 30 days old at date of delivery).


General specifications applicable world wide

- Moisture : maximum 13.5%

- Other colour maize : maximum 5% in yellow/2% in white

- Defective maize : maximum 6%


- Broken grains : maximum 5.5%

- Diseased grain : maximum 0.5%

- Other grains : maximum 2%

- Foreign matter : maximum 0.5%


- Filth, dust, soil : maximum 0.1%

- Toxic seeds : maximum 0.05%

- Aflatoxine total : maximum 4ppb (4micrograms/kg)

- Zearalenone : maximum 200ppb

- Acidity : maximum 0.9%

- Fat : minimum 2 to maximum 2.5%

- Proteins : minimum 8% (N x 6.25 of dry matter)

- Crude fibres : maximum 0.8%

- Granulation : 100% through 1mm sieve ,50% maxi through 0.3mm sieve

All bags must clean, dry, undamaged and firmly sewn with double stitch at each end.

Additional 2% empty marked spare bags of same quality (outer bag only).

Size of Onion Required by Different Countries.

Recycled bags not allowed. Recycled plastics for making bags not allowed.

Resistance to one drop from 1.2m high on the base and 2 drops on each side from 1.6m high as per EN276 for polypropylene bags and EN 766 for jute bags.

Whole grain to be packed in new jute bags 600g/bag or in new woven polypropylene bags of 66g/m², not coated, without lining.

Flour or grits to be packed in new woven polypropylene bags 66g/m², coated both sides, with a polyethylene lining of 50 microns minimum, heat sealed. Stitching must not damage the lining.

Content : 25kg or 50kg net per bag for flour and grits, 50kg or 90kg net per bag for grains.